Admins eHow SysAdmin Tips & Tricks

August 20, 2014

Force public key authentication on SSH daemon (disable password authentication)

Filed under: Debian,linux,Security — Tags: , , , , , , — admin @ 2:18 pm

It is a very good security practice to completely disable password authentication on your Linux server and use public key authentication method.
In order to do that you need to create your own public/private key pair and put the public key in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

mkdir -p ~/.ssh
echo 'ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDHV80zPWjPAwKo8Be0k1ypBRMdYDC0H2eQchu3MFsEp8av2F/18GNuHsbyMWp0p1uovP5LGZ/oPZ1ISJxLxxOBiqv0fOyb8uTDYWUUITgGvq9Fppj3BNYTjnLCUAVMKdP3VJ7IPk69ygYR1nhAXiv3dSfeG74f2eo3ZYhrylsVS2G84DUh47FuEFOsfn5s2wXVjwAgqdKBhiVQZWrptf6TEK3fZTVg4rCiRJ+YiIwTZr/CfFHbdqOiwDlGR5fWo0PHHq31lrQXzkASfi3C+ahQFnHsy4+8LdCq+TjzC3J6PbuXP1wpLdm1iP35f61hU1wX2hwhyxdvE+SBXT/PpSVB' >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

DISCLAIMER : The above key is my public key, if you put it on your server, I will be able to login into your server 😀
Now add/change the following config to /etc/ssh/sshd_config

ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
PasswordAuthentication no
UsePAM no
PubkeyAuthentication yes

and restart ssh service :

service ssh restart

Note : Before closing your current SSH session, I highly recommend you to test that actually you can login into your server by new method. otherwise you may be locked out of your server.

August 9, 2014

Exim Remove All messages From the Mail Queue

Filed under: linux — Tags: , , — admin @ 9:49 pm
exim -bp | exiqgrep -i | xargs exim -Mrm

August 7, 2014

Send email alerts if PERC H200 raid fails in Linux

Filed under: Debian,linux — Tags: , , — admin @ 11:18 pm

Recently I have bought a Dell PowerEdge R210 server which is equipped by PERC H200 raid controller.
As I have setup a raid 1 on this server, I needed to monitor its raid status, Here is what I did :
First you need “sas2ircu” utility which can be found on following website :
http://hwraid.le-vert.net/wiki/DebianPackages
Running “sas2ircu 0 STATUS” give you following output :

root@x:/# sas2ircu 0 STATUS
LSI Corporation SAS2 IR Configuration Utility.
Version 16.00.00.00 (2013.03.01)
Copyright (c) 2009-2013 LSI Corporation. All rights reserved.

Background command progress status for controller 0...
IR Volume 1
  Volume ID                               : 79
  Current operation                       : None
  Volume status                           : Enabled
  Volume state                            : Optimal
  Volume wwid                             : xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  Physical disk I/Os                      : Not quiesced
SAS2IRCU: Command STATUS Completed Successfully.
SAS2IRCU: Utility Completed Successfully.

What we are interested in is “Optimal” status. so if Optimal changes to anything, we want to be notified.
You can use the following script to do that (change MAIL variable to your own email address) :

#!/bin/bash
MAIL=mail@domain.com
RESULT=`sas2ircu 0 STATUS | grep Optimal`
if [ -z "$RESULT" ]; then
    echo "RAID ERROR ON SERVER" | mail -s 'Raid Error' "$MAIL"
    else echo "Raid is OK"
fi

as always do not forget to test if your server is actually able to send mails and you receive them.
Finally save the script in a file and put it in cronjob. I have chosen to run it every 12 hours :

0 */12 * * * /usr/bin/raidcheck

July 20, 2014

Send email alerts when HP Proliant RAID fails in Linux

Filed under: linux — Tags: , , , , , , , — admin @ 7:51 pm

As a minimalist person, I am not a fan of running heavy monitoring tools of HP on my server. so I have written a very small bash script to monitor my server RAID status and send me email alerts if it fails.
For this script to work, first you need to install hpacucli (HP Array Configuration Utility) on your server. you can download it from HP website for your Linux distribution.
The script is very easy to understand but you may need to tweak it a little bit to fit your server.
The heart is this line :

hpacucli ctrl slot=1 pd all show

which returns following on my server :

\\ EMPTY LINE
Smart Array P222 in Slot 1

   array A

      physicaldrive 2I:1:1 (port 2I:box 1:bay 1, SATA, 3 TB, OK)
      physicaldrive 2I:1:2 (port 2I:box 1:bay 2, SATA, 3 TB, OK)
      physicaldrive 2I:1:3 (port 2I:box 1:bay 3, SATA, 3 TB, OK)
      physicaldrive 2I:1:4 (port 2I:box 1:bay 4, SATA, 3 TB, OK)

but we only need lines 6-9 which are showing the drives status. It is where you may need to tweak it as you may have more or less drives.
So it may not be 6-9 for you and you may need to change 6,9 in sed command.
Here is the final script :

#!/bin/bash
MAIL=mail@domain.com
RESULT=`hpacucli ctrl slot=1 pd all show | sed -n '6,9 p' | grep -v OK`
if [ -n "$RESULT" ]; then
	echo "$RESULT" | mail -s 'Raid Error' "$MAIL"
	else echo "Raid is OK"
fi

Dont forget to change MAIL variable to your own email address.
You may test the script once to make sure your server is able to send emails and you actually receive them.
Finally save the script in a file and put it in cronjob. I have chosen to run it every 12 hours :

0 */12 * * * /usr/bin/raidcheck

May 9, 2014

Auto update Atomicorp mod_security rules script

Filed under: cPanel,linux — Tags: , , , , — admin @ 6:31 pm

Here is a very simple script, I have written for my own use to auto update mod_security rules from Atomicorp server. You can use cronjobs to automate the process.
Dont forget to put your Atomicorp subscription username and password in the script.

#!/bin/sh

USER=
PASS=
DIR=/var/cpanel

VER=`wget -q --user=$USER --password=$PASS http://updates.atomicorp.com/channels/rules/subscription/VERSION -O - | grep MODSEC_VERSION | sed -r 's/^.{15}//'`
FILE_NAME=modsec-$VER.tar.bz2
wget -q --user=$USER --password=$PASS http://updates.atomicorp.com/channels/rules/subscription/$FILE_NAME -O - | tar jxf - -C $DIR
/etc/init.d/httpd -k graceful

In this case, the script will install the rules in /var/cpanel/modsec directory and reload the server gracefully.
Apparently you should have the following in your modsec2.user.conf

Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/000000_asl_modreqtimeout.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/00_asl_0_global.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/00_asl_rbl.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/00_asl_z_antievasion.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/00_asl_zz_strict.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/01_asl_content.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/01_asl_rules_special.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/03_asl_dos.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/05_asl_exclude.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/05_asl_scanner.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/09_asl_rules.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/09_asl_rules_antievasion.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/10_asl_antimalware.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/10_asl_antimalware_output.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/10_asl_rules.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/11_asl_adv_rules.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/11_asl_data_loss.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/11_asl_rules.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/12_asl_brute.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/20_asl_useragents.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/30_asl_antimalware.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/30_asl_antispam.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/30_asl_antispam_referrer.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/31_asl_urispam.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/40_asl_apache2-rules.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/50_asl_rootkits.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/51_asl_rootkits.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/60_asl_recons.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/61_asl_recons_dlp.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/98_asl_adv_redactor.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/98_asl_jitp.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/99_asl_a_redactor.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/99_asl_exclude.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/99_asl_jitp.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/99_asl_redactor.conf"
Include "/var/cpanel/modsec/99_asl_redactor_post.conf"

October 24, 2012

The proper way to benchmark disk write performance in Linux

Filed under: CentOS,Debian,linux — Tags: , , , , — admin @ 7:46 am
dd bs=1M count=512 if=/dev/zero of=test conv=fdatasync

The result is something like this :
512+0 records in
512+0 records out
536870912 bytes (537 MB) copied, 1.43334 s, 375 MB/s

April 17, 2012

How to create a mirror of a site using wget

Filed under: General,linux — Tags: , , , — admin @ 7:33 am

First you need to make sure you have the latest version of wget, some distros are still being released with older versions of wget which has some bugs regarding mirroring functionality. currently the latest version is 1.13.4, so if you don’t have the latest version, you can download and build it from following link :

ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/

after building the wget, make sure the latest version is being used :

wget -V

output :

GNU Wget 1.13.4 built on linux-gnu.

+digest +https +ipv6 -iri +large-file +nls -ntlm +opie +ssl/gnutls 

Wgetrc: 
    /usr/local/etc/wgetrc (system)
Locale: /usr/local/share/locale 
Compile: gcc -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DSYSTEM_WGETRC="/usr/local/etc/wgetrc" 
    -DLOCALEDIR="/usr/local/share/locale" -I. -I../lib -I../lib -O2 
    -Wall 
Link: gcc -O2 -Wall -lgnutls -lgcrypt -lgpg-error -lz -lrt ftp-opie.o 
    gnutls.o ../lib/libgnu.a 

Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Originally written by Hrvoje Niksic <hniksic@xemacs.org>.
Please send bug reports and questions to <bug-wget@gnu.org>.

OK, you are good to go now, just execute the following command and relax 🙂

wget -mkp -e robots=off http://site

December 16, 2011

Linux Delete Empty Directories (Folders)

Filed under: CentOS,Debian,General,linux — Tags: , , , , , , — admin @ 6:01 am

As simple as one single command :

find -type d -empty -delete

September 26, 2011

Gateway on a different subnet on Linux

Filed under: Debian,General,linux — Tags: , , , , , — admin @ 7:50 am

Theoretically host IP and gateway should be on the same IP subnet. but there are some situations where host IP and gateway subnet are on different subnets. like my situation today. I was assigned two additional IPs for my server by my Data-center, but IPs were from a different subnet compared to server main IP. these IPs will work if you set them as additional IPs. but I needed them to create two new VPS’s on my server with bridged network interface. in this situation additional IPs should serve as main IP address and there is no gateway on same subnet available.
So here are the assumptions :

a.b.c.d is the host IP
e.f.g.h is the gateway IP
a.b.c.d & e.f.g.h are on different subnets.

by default if you try to set gateway by following command :

route add default gw e.f.g.h

you will get this error :

SIOCADDRT: No such process

the trick is simple , first add a route to default gateway itself and then set the default gateway , like this :

route add e.f.g.h/32 dev eth0
route add default gw e.f.g.h

remember you may need to change eth0 to your device name , it may be eth1 or wlan0 or anything.

How to make these route changes persistent ?

For Debian/Ubuntu :
Add the following lines to /etc/network/interfaces :

post-up route add e.f.g.h/32 dev eth0
post-up route add default gw e.f.g.h

September 5, 2011

IPTables packet traverse map

Filed under: CentOS,Debian,General,linux,Security — Tags: , , , , , — admin @ 7:23 am

1.

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